Investor glossary

ADAM: The particle physics CERN spin-off company based on the CERN campus in Geneva, which was acquired by Advanced Oncotherapy in 2013

CCLs: Cavity-Coupled Linacs. CCLs are a series of 10 ‘higher speed accelerators’, which accelerate the beam up to a clinically useful energy of 230 MeV. These protons will be guided with high precision and delivered to the tumour with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissues

CERN: The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (French: Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire). CERN is a European research organisation whose purpose is to conduct some of the most important physics and engineering experiments worldwide. Established in 1954, the organisation is based in Switzerland (Geneva) and has 21 European member states. The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which employs just under 2,400 full-time employees and 1,500 part-time employees, and hosts some 10,000 visiting scientists and engineers, representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities

Cyclotron: A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path. The first cyclotron was built in the early 1930's

Injector: See RFQ

LIGHT: LIGHT is an acronym for Advanced Oncotherapy's Linac Image Guided Hadron Technology - the next generation of particle therapy systems that requires neither the massive infrastructure nor the extensive shielding that older and current forms of protons accelerators do. LIGHT uses innovative accelerators and hence does not require a cyclotron nor a synchrotron to accelerate the protons to the high energy levels needed

Linac: A linear particle accelerator. Linac is a type of particle accelerator that greatly increases the velocity of charged subatomic particles or ions by subjecting the charged particles to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline. Linacs have many applications: they generate X-rays and high energy electrons for medicinal purposes in radiation therapy, serve as particle injectors for higher-energy accelerators, and are used directly to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles (electrons and positrons) for particle physics

Proton: Proton is a positively charged particle found within the atomic nucleus. Protons were discovered by Ernest Rutherford in experiments conducted between the years 1911 and 1919. Experiments done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the late 1960's and early 1970's showed that protons are made from other sub-atomic particles including e.g. quarks

RFQ: Radio-Frequency Quadrapole or ‘injector’. This core unit generates the protons, which are then accelerated up to energies of 4.5 MeV and delivered to other parts of the machine

SCDTL: Side-Coupled Drift Tube Linac or ‘slow speed accelerator’. This accelerates the beam up to 35 MeV. Discussions on the construction of the SCDTL are currently taking place

SD-IORT: Single-dose intraoperative radiotherapy. Typically, standard radiation therapy involves five days of treatment per week, for a total of five to six weeks for some patients. With this technology, radiation oncologists can deliver a similar dose of radiation in a single treatment session, while also preserving more healthy tissue. This helps to reduce side effects and the time spent going back and forth to the hospital for radiation treatments

Synchrotron: A particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the guiding magnetic field is time-dependent, being synchronised to a particle beam of increasing kinetic energy